Jump to content

Parasports

Iwde to Wikipedia
Iris Pruysen ɗon hawta nder jugo ɓurɗum nder Paris Athletics Paralympic Meeting 2014.

Parasports ko yiɗde yimɓe ɓe ɓe mbaɗi hakkillaaji, hawti e hakkillaaji ɓalli e hakkillo. Parasports feere ɗon je ɗon je ɗon haandi kuuɗe ɓannduji daga nder nder nder nder kuuɗe ɓanngooje ɓannduje, nden feere ɗon je je ɗon haanduki musamman ngam yimɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe ɗon mari limce, ɓe ɗon walaa ko nandi bee ɓanngoje ɓannguoje. Ɓaawol ɗon woodi nder kuuje nayi: ɓandu, ɓandu, permanent e temporary. Nder dooka, ɓe naftiri darnde ko ɓe mbaɗata nder nder nder nder ɓaleeji ngam ɓe mbaɗɓa yimɓe ɓe mbaɗta kuuɗe feere feere ngam ɓe mbaɗa haɓaade.[1]

Etimoloji[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Wolde "parasports" fuɗɗii nde wolde paraplegic e sports.   [Njiɗol ɓaleeɓe] Ɗe feere nder haala nde hawti e ko'e maɓɓe hawti e hawtaade e ko'en, ko'e hawtaade, ko'en hawtaade bee ko'e mum, ko'a hawtaade be ko'e yimɓe ɓe mbaadi e ko'o hawtaade. Kalfinaaji paralympiki waawi naftoraade e parasports, maa e nder fannu kiiki ɗum ko hawti tan e caltuɗe ɗe ɓe mbaɗata e nder paralympics.

Dental e taariika[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Yimɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe ɓooyɗi ɓe ɓe ɓe njogii ɓe ngaɗi ko ɓe ngaɗi, ɓe ngaɗi ɗum ɓe ɓe ɓe mbaɗi ko ɓe mbaɗi: ɓe ɓe ɓe ngaɗi boo, ɓe mbaɗi boo, e ɓe mbaɗi ɓe mbaɗi ɗum ɓe mbaɗi. Gooto gooto woodi taariika feere-feere, jaɓɓorgo, program gasa, e no ɓe njogori nder nder nder nder ciya.

Naawol nanki[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Firo gasa duniyaaru nder nder nder nder ɓoyma ɓoyma fuɗɗiti bee Paris Silent Games, nder hitaande 1924, tawtoreede Committee International des Sports des Sourds, CISS (Colleejo Dental Fedde Ɓoyma ɓeyma ɓoymaa). Ɗi'e ko'e juulde ɓeydii ko juulde juulde deaflympics, ko CISS laaminoo, ko'e je'e juulade feere ngam juulɓe ɓeen ɓeen ɓe'e ɓe'e, ko'en ɓe'en ɓe ɓe'e haani haadeede e nder nokkuuje juulde, e jokkondiral ummatoore ɗum je'e je je'e nder juulde.[2]

Ɓaawol hakkillo[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Yimɓe ɓe ɓe mari ɓamtaare hakkilantaaku fuɗɗiino haɓɓugo nder 1960s nder laawol gollal Special Olympics. Ɗu'um ɓeydi diga nder cuuɗi cuuɗi ɗi Eunice Kennedy Shriver waɗi nder hitaande 1962. Nder hitaande 1968 ɓe waɗi juulde International Special Olympics, nder Chicago. Hannde, Special Olympics ɗon hokkata ekkitinol e gasa nder ko'e feere-feere nder nder ko'o nder yimɓe ɓe ɓe mari limce hakkilantaaku.[3]

Nder hitaande 1986, International Sports Federation for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities (INAS-FID) tawii ngam wallugo gasa ha nder yimɓe ɓe mari hakkillo. Ɗu'um waɗi feere to laawol "kafe'en ngam fuu" nder Olympics Special. Wakkati feere, yimɓe ɓe ɓe mari ɓeydaaku nder hakkillo ɓe hawti nder juulal Paralympic. Caggal ɓaawo ɓ ɓeydaani e nder paralympics 2000, nde ɓe holli wonde yoga e ɓeydaɓe ɓe naatnooɓe nder kuugal ɓeydaaku hakkillo, INAS-FID ɓe njaɓii ɓe ƴettude e nder kuugal paralympiki, amma ɓe njaɓɓi hakkillaaji dow ɓeydaago hakkillo.

Ɓamtaare ɓanndu[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Firo jogortooɓe ɓaleeɓe ɓaleejo ɗon woodi haa 1911, nde "Cripples Olympiad" waɗii nder Amerik. Go'oto nder ɓaleeɓe mawɓe ɗum Walter William Francis, Welshman, mo heɓii ko'e mum e jaŋde e jaŋge. Ɓaawo, kuuje ɗuuɗɗe ɗon ɓamta diga nder kuuje ceertuɗe. Caggal konu duuniyaaru ɗiɗaɓu, ngam jaabuki haajirɗe limgal mawɗo yimɓe ɓe ɓe njaɓi ngam warugo e yimɓe, ɓe ɓeydiino yiɗde nder nder nder nder suudu. Firo ngam warugo ɓeydaama nder nder nder nder ɓeydaade nder nder nder firo nder nder nder. Mawɗo laawol ngol woni Sir Ludwig Guttmann daga Hospitaal Stoke Mandeville nder Ingiltere. Nder hitaande 1948, wakkati juulde Olimpiiki ha London, o hawriti gasa juulde ngam jokkondirɓe juulde juulde e nder Stoke Mandeville. Ɗo woni fuɗɗam juulde Stoke Mandeville, diga nde juulde IWAS World Games e juulde Paralympic. Fedde Paralympiade arandeere, ko ɗon ɗon ɗon ɗon haalde e Fedde 9 International Stoke Mandeville Games ("fedde arandeere" ɓeydi nde nde yimɓe gardiiɓe Holandiiɓe ardiiɓe nder Fedde arandeeri nder Fedde e nder hitaande 1952), waɗii nder Roma nder 1960. 2nd, 3rd e 4th Paralympic Games ɗon ɗon ɗon ɗon jeya 13th, 17th e 21st International Stoke Mandeville Games.

Yimɓe mo ɓe jogii limce ɓanndu fuɗɗiino hawtoreede nder US nder ɓaawo 1960s nder laawol Disabled Sports USA. Ɓamtaare Ɓamtaare Amerik wonnoo e hitaande 1967 e hooreeɓe militeerɓe ɓamtaare, hawtiɓe e Jim Winthers, ngam wallude haɓɓugo soobnaaɓe ɓamtaari ɗi ƴiwoyi diga Vietnam, nden fuɗɗam ɓe noddi National Amputee Skiers Association. Nder hitaande 1970, Hal O'Leary waɗi National Sports Center for the Disabled (NSCD) nder Winter Park nder Colorado. Hannde, NSCD ina woodi jannginooɓe 19 e yimɓe 1,000. Yim[4]

Nder hitaande 1975, juulde Paralympic ɓeydi haa hawti e yimɓe ɓe ɓe njogii ɓoggi e ɓe nji'i. Yimɓe be cerebral palsy ɓe haani hawtaade fuɗɗam nder 1980.[5]

Gila 1988, Komite Olympic International taƴii ngam haɓɓugo ko'e yimɓe ɓe mbaɗata limce (ko'e limce ɓalli) e hawtaade e maɓɓe nder juulde: jaɓɓude juulde Paralympic ɗon tokki juulde juulde. Ɗuum timmingol ɗon walli ngam ɓeyda ɓeydaago ɓeydaaki nder nder nder nder limce ɓeydaaku. Jaɓɓorgo wiɗtoond dow site Suwiis holli wonde ɓurɓe heewde feddeeji pinal pinal e pinal ina limta ɓaleeɓe ɓaleeɓe ko ɓuri yimɓe kala.

Nder 2006, ɓe waɗi juulde ɓesngu ngam yimɓe ɓe ɓe mbaɗi ɓeydaaki walla ɓe mbaɗi feere ngam ɓe mbaɗata nder juulde fuɗɗunde. College Park Industries, marɗo fotde fotde, hawrani ɗum ngam hokki yimɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe njogii ɓe nokkuuje ɓe mbaɗata nder nder nder nder kuugal ngal ɓeydi ɓeydi anndinki bana kuugal. Ɗu'um ko waɗata hitaande fuu nder Orlando nder lewru, hawti e gasa nder skateboarding, wakeboarding, rock climbing, mountain biking, surfing, moto-x e kayaking. Goɗɗe kawtal, bana Paradox Sports, ɗon ummito ngam wallude ɓe ɓe ɓe mbaawata e ɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe ɓeyda ngam ɓe ɓe mbaawa e ɓe ɓe njaɓɓa nder yimɓe ɓe ɓe mbaɗata e nder nder nder nder ɓernde ɓe ɓe mbaɗi.

E hitaande 2006, Fedde Fedde Fuuta Fuuta Fedde Fuude Fuuta Fuude e Fedde Fudu Fuuta Fudu Fuude United States fuɗɗii wonde ngam huutoree e jokkude e ɓeydaade go'o nder ɓaleeɓe ɓooyɓe jokkondirɓe e fannu fannu fundu Fuuta Futu Fuude (ko Fuude fannu Fuude).

hitaande 2007, goomu yimɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe nganndi, ɓe ɓe ɓe njanngini, ɓe ɓe ngaɗi e maɓɓe, ɓe ɓe ngonndi e maɓɓe, e ɓe ɓe ngondiri e maɓɓe, ngam ɓe mbaɗɓa hakkillaaji dow ɓe ɓe ngonaa ɓe ngannda. Goomu ndu - SPORTS for Exceptional Athletes (S4EA) - ɗon jaɓɓa yimɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe mbaadi ɓamtaare nder duuɓi 5 diga mawɓe. Nder hawtuki yimɓe be be be be naa'a baawu, S4EA ɗon tammi wonɓe jokkondirɓe ɓe ɗon hawta ɓe'e ɓe'e ɓaŋgan bee haandi ɓernde ngam ɓe'e hawta bee kuuɗe ɓernde be hawtaade nder ummaatooje S4EA. Ko ngam ɗum ɓurna huutoreeɓe nder nokkuure San Diego, S4EA ɓurti diga nokkuure nde haa haandi e Ventura e Temecula, California.

Hannde, ko juulde Paralympic laatii e International Paralympic Committee, e hawti e goɗɗe pelle pinal.[6]

Hannde, woodi fursatuuji feere feere nder lesdi Amerika ngam yimɓe gooduɓe nder jama'aare ngam ɓe njogii, hawti bee fijirde, fijirde fuɗɗi, fijirleeki e ball ball ball, fijirloore e kiilo, fijirol ndiyam, e fijirleeku. Army Wounded Warrior Program ɗon hokkata ballon volleyball ɗon jooɗi haa yimɓe jeyaaɓe nder suudu, e goɗɗe ummaatooje ɗon hokkata bana non fursatuuji ɓaleeji ngam yimɓe jeyaaɗo nder suudu ngam yimɓe jeyaɓe nder suudu. Woni ɗiɗo koɗol ɓurɗe jokkude e nder paralympiki ɗi ɗon woodi ngam yimɓe ardiiɓe e yimɓe ardiije e ɓe ɗon nyawdi: warɓe nder lesdi Amerika e warɓe nder leydi.[7]

Yimɓe[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Gooto mo ɗon jooɗoto nder gariiri mawɗo nder <i id="mweQ">Marathon International de Paris</i> (Marathon Paris) nder 2014.
Wounded Warrior Chuck Sketch ɗon hawta nder kuugal swimming on 14 feebari 2012 ha United States Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton.

Yimɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe njogii feere feere ɓe njogini feere feere feere, bana boo feere feere feere feere ngam ɓe ɓe njogo ɓe ɓe ɓe njeyaa, bana golbal. Nder kala jokkondirɗe, ko feere feere feere ɗon waɗata haa dowji feere feere; misaalu, ko feere fuu nder jokkondirɗum Paralympic ɗon je nder paralympic Games. Ɓeydi, yimɓe ɓe ɓe mbaawani limce ɓe ngaɗata ko ɓuri nder nder nder nder kuugal limce.

Yimɓe ɓe ngaɗani ko ɓe ngaɗata e nder nder nder nder ɓernde ɓe mbaadi e ɓe mbaadi. mbaawi wallude ƴettugo feere nder ɓernde ɓernde ɓanduɗo e ɓanduɗo. [8]

Fedde nde ɓe njogii[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Won daliila ngam hollaade huutoreeji huutoreeji ɓalli (IMT) ngam huutoreede huutoreeki ngam ɓeyda huutore aerobik, huutoreeje huutore, e nootoreeji nguurndam nder yimɓe ɓe'e nder yimɓe ɓe ngaɗata. IMT ha musamman hollitii ngam ɓeyda kuuɗe ɓalli nyawugo e waawde wallude ngam hallude dyspnea ha nder kuugal. Fuuji ɓurɗi ɓ e ɓesdaare e nder ɓesdaari e nder ɓeydaari e dow ɓeydaare e dow ɓesdaaru e nder ɓeldaaji ɗi ɓeydooɓe e nder duuɓi goɗɗi.[9]

Wondirde[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Fedde fuɗɗugo nder duuɓi 1980 e fuɗɗam 1990, golle fuɗɗii nder leyɗe e pelle keewɗe ngam hawtaɓe ɓaleeɓe e nder nder nder nder kuugal ɓaleeɓe. Ɗuum hawti e ɓeydaade kuugal ngam ɓeydaaniɓe ɓeydaandi e juulde mawɗe bana juulde juulde olympiki e juulɗe juulde Commonwealth, e hawtingol ɓeydaande ɗi to goɗɗe kuugal juulde ɗe naa' ɓe ɓeydaadi.Gila 1984, Olympics hawti e kuugal hollude ngam yimɓe ɓe ɓe nganndi dow paraolimpik. , hawtuki ko'e medal fulɓe ɗon waɗaay, e darnde jokkereɓe ɓe ɓe mbaawata ɓaawo maɓɓe nder jamirooje Olimpiiki ɗon mari dowla. juulde Commonwealth, ɓe hawtiino ardiiɓe ɓe ɓe mbaawnoo limce fuɗɗam nder juulde 1990 Auckland Commonwealth Games, ɓaawo maajum nder juulɗe jaayndeere nder 1994, e nder juulɓe Manchester Commonwealth Games 2002 ɓe hawti ɓe bana ardiiɓe fulɓe nder juuldi maɓɓe, ɓe waɗi ɗi'en juulde fuɗɗam hawtiinde juulde caaɗeele keewɗe. Polisi ɗo fuɗɗii e juulde Melbourne Commonwealth Games 2006, to Canadian Chantal Petitclerc laati ardiiɗo juulde mo'o ɓeydi ɓeydiiko ngam darnugo bandira lesdi maako nder juulde fuɗɗam juulde. [Njiɗal ɓeydi mum] Fuuɓe bana na'i Natalie du Toit e jaŋde jogiiɗo Oscar Pistorius ɓe ɗon haɓɓa bana ɓe ɗon jogiiɓe ɓalli e nder kuugal feere feere haa e nder juulal Olimpiiki.[10] [11] [12] [13]

2013 FIFA waɗi anniya wonde koɗo leydi Austria Martin Hofbauer waawi jokkude fotbal ngam jokkude e fude e potɗe caggal nde o maayi koyngal mum to joomum ngam nyau. [14]

Kuugal hoore hoore ɗon laati go'o dow no yimɓe ɓe ɗon jogii nder nder nder nderje nder nder nderji. Kuugal ngal hollitii anndal ngal e nder ɓamtaare e nder ɓamtude e nder ɓernde. Kuugal fuɗɗii ƴamugo daliila hawtuki nder gasa bana Olympics Special e Games Paralympic. Motifaaji ngam hawtaago nder Olympics Special ɗon holla ko yimɓe e saare ngam hawtaaki maɓɓe ko haani hawtaago e kuugal Olympics.

Won laabi laaɓɗi ɗi waawaa huutore ngam ɓeyda hawtuki yimɓe ɓe ɓe mbaawɓe limce nder nder lislaamu. Ɗu'um hawti e waylaade dookaaji malla haɓɓugo kuugal ngam neɗɗo go'o. Bana non, hakkilantaaki hakkilantaaku nafata ɓeydaaki hawtuki yimɓe ɓe ɓe ɓeyaani.[15][16]

Hokka ɓikkoy ɓe mari limce hakkilantaaku nder kuugal ciyaangal nder nder ɗi ɓe ngaɗi bee yimɓe ɓe ɓe naa' ɓe naa' ɗum naa' ɗum bana bana bana bana ɗum, bana ɗum ɓeydi hawtaago nder kuugal ɓurna nder nguurndam maɓɓe fuɗnaaku, bana ɗum ɓeydori hawtaade maɓɓe bee ɓikkoy ɗi naa' ɓe maa'o. Ɗum nafata ɓikkoy mo ɓe njogii limce ngam ɓe keɓu feere feere feere ngam ɓe jokkondira nder kuugal ɓale, misaalu, wallugo hawtaago diga jannginooɓe e yimɓe feere, wallugo waawugo diga maama'en e wallugo hawtougo diga dogeji therapy. Kuugal ngal fotaani wonde ko haani waɗude ngam haani waɗugo ko feere-feere e ko sukaaɓe mbaɗi, e hawti e ɗum ɓuri laaɓugo to kuugal ngal wonaa ko hawti e gasa.

Yimɓe hawtaade[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

"Fowta fuɗnaaki" hawti e timmuɗe ɗe hawti e yimɓe ɓe ɓe ngalaa hakkille fuɗnaandi. Gila 1990s, Special Olympics Unified Sports ɗon ɓesda hawtaade yimɓe bee laawol ekkitinol e hawtaade e hawtaare. Ɗuum fuɗɗam ɓeydi haa duniyaaru fuu, jooni ɗon hawta ɓurɓe 700,000 nder lesdi 127 nder duniyaaru. Fasal ngal hawti e hawtaade nder nder nder nderji dowla ɗon laaɓɗum: janngugo bee gootum e jokkude bee gootume ɗon laawol ɓurɗum to duɗal e faamuki.

NBA ɗon wondi mo ɗon yiɗi ɓernde maako bana ɓernde maako, o ɗon jaɓɓa ɓernde maako ngam o ɗon jaɓa ɓernde mum bana ɓernde mum. Walt Disney Company, ESPN e Special Olympics ɗon huuwugo dow jaayɗe duniyaaru ɗiɗo hitaande ngam huutore baawɗe ɓale ngam semmbina hawtaade e jaɓugo yimɓe.

Mawɓe mawɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe ɓe ɓaleeɓe ɓe ɓe mbaɗata e nder motorsport ɓe mbaɗataa e mawɓe mawɓe mawɗo ɓe ɓe mbaɗi e maɓɓe; misaalu Alex Zanardi, Albert Llovera, Clay Regazzoni e Jason Watt.

Ndaare kadi[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

  • Assistive technology in sport
  • ASEAN ParaGames
  • Défi sportif
  • FESPIC Games
  • IWAS World Games
  • Special Hockey
  • 1st World Deaf Ice Hockey and Curling Championships
  • World Deaf Football Championships

Wurooji wurooji[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Firooji[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

  1. "What is parasport?". Canadian Paralympic Committee. Canadian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  2. "International Committee of Sport for the Deaf". Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  3. "The History of Special Olympics". Retrieved September 12, 2010.
  4. Candus Thomson, "Disabled veterans vow to conquer Mount Kilimanjaro", Baltimore Sun, July 31, 2010
  5. Cooper, Rory A.; Nowak, Christopher J. (2011). "Paralympics and veterans". Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. 48 (10): xi–xii. doi:10.1682/JRRD.2011.11.0209. PMID 22234671.
  6. "Paralympic Games". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  7. Goff, Mandy (March 2012). "Adapted Sport Programs for Veterans with Disabilities". Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 83 (3): 27–28. doi:10.1080/07303084.2012.10598742. S2CID 72401694.
  8. Cooper; Nowak (2011). "Paralympics and veterans". Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 48 (10): xi–xiv. doi:10.1682/jrrd.2011.11.0209. PMID 22234671.
  9. https://doi.org/10.1682%2Fjrrd.2011.11.0209
  10. Daignault, Louis. "Integration Battle Heats Up At CommonWealth Games". Access Guide Canada. Canadian Abilities Foundation. Archived from the original on 12 April 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  11. "2004 IOC decision". www.rickhansen.com. Archived from the original on March 23, 2006.
  12. Van Ooyen and Justin Anjema, Mark; Anjema, Justin (25 March 2004). "A Review and Interpretation of the Events of the 1994 Commonwealth Games" (PDF). Redeemer University College. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  13. "Commonwealth Games Federation - Commonwealth Sports - Elite Athletes With A Disability (EAD)". Thecgf.com. Archived from the original on 2010-11-30. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
  14. FIFA erlaubt Steirer Einsatz mit Prothese, orf.at, 2013-05-13.
  15. Geidne, Susanna; Jerlinder, Kajsa (2016-05-01). "How sports clubs include children and adolescents with disabilities in their activities. A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles". Sport Science Review (in Engeleere). 25 (1–2): 29–52. doi:10.1515/ssr-2016-0002. ISSN 2069-7244.
  16. Williams, T. L.; Smith; Papathomas, A. (2014). "The barriers, benefits and facilitators of leisure time physical activity among people with spinal cord injury: a meta-synthesis of qualitative findings" (PDF). Health Psychology Review. 8 (4): 404–425. doi:10.1080/17437199.2014.898406. PMID 25211208. S2CID 2718370. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-07-20.