Taytu Betul

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Modèle:Infobox Biographie2 Taytu Betul (ge'ez : ጣይቱ ብጡል), inniraanooɗo Wälättä Mikael ko debbo dimo ecopinaajo jibinaaɗo hedde 1851 nder to Semien, sara Tigray, o sankii ñande 11 colte 1918 to Entoto. Ko o laamiyaŋke jiimnooɗo e laamanteeri ndi Ecopi tuggude 1889 haa 1913.

Sabu iwdemo e ɓesngu rimɗungu ɓooyngu to rewo Ecopi, o heɓii nehdi ñiiɓndi e cosaan e aada. O jangii kadi dowre goɗɗe ballitoojemo e fannu laamagol ko way heen no geɗe jawtuɗe keeri, newnotiral, ko ganduɗa hewaano e oon jamaanu e debbo, e nder Afriki walla nokku goɗɗo. Caggal dewle keewɗe, Betu resondiri e lewru seeɗto 1883 e laamiɗo Choa biyeteeɗo Sahle Myriam, mo ganduɗa ko kam e makko poti pellital, kadi kañum ina yiilotonoo ballal toon e rewo leydi he. Ngaal ballital saabi Sahle Myriam jiimi e kala laamu e nder Ecopi e hitaande 1889 e nootitoraademo Menelik II. Ndeen waɗi Taytu Betul jeyaa e rewɓe ɓurɓe dowlude e oon jamaanu.

Newniyaŋke laaptuɗo, Taytu Betul sirŋiniima haɓi e koniyanŋkooɓe italinaaɓe muuyanooɓe dahde leydi makko. Laamuyanke o sali fountondireede haa woni sabu ɗuum waasnatnoɓe yoga e leyɗeele ecopinaɓe. Ko wonaa ɗuum ko, jom galle makko ŋeewi tawo ko nanondiral ko adii nde omo abbo e koŋgol jom suudu makko. Taytu Betul ina tawa wolde Adoua nde 1896, mo ɓe ndippi e dow italinaaɓe. Haysinno o jogaaki gollal teeŋtungal, doole makko e boowal laamu he e to jom galle makko seeraani e ɓeydaade. O lelnii peeje keewɗe haa teeŋti e darnugol laamorgo ngo Ecopi jooni ngo, woni Addis-Abeba. Nde wonno habdiiɓe Menelik ɓe wondude heen feccere e ɓiɓɓe leydi ndi ngonaa welaaɓemo, nde jom galle makko o sanki tan o joña baŋnge.

Nguurndam[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

L'Éthiopie en 1850.

Taytu Betul ummi ko e ɓesngu Oromos dowlungu e baŋnge rewo Abyssinie kadi foottungu jokkere e lasli salomonide kam e laamɗo mo teemidinol XVII ɓiwol, Susneyos. Baba makko, gonnooɗo ras Betul Haile Maryam, ko kalfinaaɗo laamu mo Semien. Kabaruuji faade e yummum Taytu Betul ina niɓɓiɗi : yoga e windooɓe cikki e riimayɓe o ummi, yaama koo korɗo, woɗɓe ina ciforoomo debbo keewɗo nafoore, « debbo tedduɗo mo Gondar ». Taytu Betul ko kumbaajo ɓesngu ngu sukaaɓe nayo, ɗiɗo worɓe e ɗiɗo rewɓe, kamɓe fof ɓe keɓi cagataagal, ko heewaani, sabu kewgol maayirgol cukaaku keewnongol to Ecopi e oon jamaanu. Taytu Betul jokkiino jaggireede no « lewlewal mo Ecopi».

Cukaaku e jaŋde[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Taytu jibinaa ko Semien, saanga 1851. Hono sukaaɓe rewɓe rimɓe heewɓe rewooɓe diine Iisa e saare he, Taytu Betul nehii ko e nehdi diiniyankaagu yuɓɓungu. O jangi kadi amharique, ñaawooje , geɗe adunnayaŋkooje e politiki. Taytu Betul heblaama e dewgal ko yaawi, o adi reeseede ko gila omo yaara e duuɓi 10 hakkunde makko e gooto e sordaasi laamuyaŋke mo Téwodros II. Ndeen noon, kabaruuji ko faati e cukaaku kam e cagataagal makko ɓuraa heew.

Gadiiɗo resdemo soka ko e yanŋgo felliyankooɓe. Wadde, Taytu Betul resta laawol ɗiɗoɓol e bieteeɗo « dejazmach » Taklé Guiorguis[3], mbo o seertata ngam humtaneede e goɗɗo ɓurɗo alɗude e dowlude. Dewgal ngal muujaaki sabu urɓudemo gorko makko haa firñitii e Yohannes IV. Peeje ɗe cuurta, waɗi o waawnaa e dewgal ngal heewaani ngartam e konuyanke ɓolto. Caggal ɗeen dewle nai ɗe muujaaki no feewi, Taytu resondiri e cukko sordaasi mo Sahle Maryam, négus mo Choa, rewi heen ko sordaasi Fitaorari Zekargatchou, keynum Sahle Maryam. Dewgal makko cakkitiiŋgal hakkunde makko e ras Ouoldié walliti ganndotiral makko e négus o. Ndeen noon, Taytu Betul naati e dewle keewɗe ko adii nde omo hawra kadi o resondira e gonoyoowo laamuyaŋke o.

Dewgal makko e Sahle Maryam[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Taytu Betul vers 1886.

Nde Sahle Maryam, gardiiɗo mo Choa, hawri e Taytu Betul, tawi ko dewgal mum e debbo mum gadiiɗo bieteeɗo Altash, ɓiyum Téwodros II o, gasiino[4]. Ndeen noon, ko batoowo ina wiee Bafana o yiɗnoo, kono garal Taytu Betul, ganndiraaɗo ɗaaɗgol mum peɗeeli e mbaadi mum laaptundi sabu iwdi mum e oromos, waɗi o liɓi oya ko yaawi. Taytu Betul e Sahle Maryam ndesondiri ko ñande seeɗto 1883[4].

Ngalɗo dewgal rendini ko yimɓe ɗiɗo jom en anniyaaji tiiɗɗi, jogiiɓe kadi mbaawkaaji timmitinɗi baawɗi yettindeɓe e jappeere laamu he. Ceeɓgol mawngol to bange politiki e gardogol mo Taytu, timmini ɗum ko mbaawka ganndal werto leydi. Ko teeŋtini ɗum, ɓesngu kanko jogorɗo wonoyde laamuyaŋke, omo jogi ballal to rewo too, iwdi laamuyaŋkooɓe ɗiɗo ɓennuɓe ɓe, woni  Téwodros II eYohannes IV[5]. Waddene, hoɗɓe to rewo ɓe ɓurnoo teddineede to baŋnge ƴamgol lefol laamu. O naworii e dewgal he kadi ngalu heewŋngu ummoriiŋngu e leyɗeele ndema e wosorɗe kam e pelle jaaƴɗe hesindiiɓe sabaabu nde jinnaaɓe makko. Sahle Maryam jeyaa ko to baŋnge worgo, wadde resondirdemo e Taytu ma laɓɓin ngonka makko e nder saare he.

To baŋngal mum, Taytu Betul kañum hollirii anniyaaji laamorɗi toowɗi… kadi o nangiri dewgal ngal ko jettorgal ngal juutata e doole laamuyaŋkaagal[5]. Jaati, wonde Sahle Maryam laamɗo mo Choa addanii ɗum fooɗanaade laamu Ecopi tuumnaade e gootol e lasli makko mo asko nawti haa to roi Salomon kam e reine de Saba, ballal nafowal so tumnaama e Kebra Nagast, to fina tawaji e kuule ecopinaaɓe ndentinaa[6]. Taytu Betul ina laaɓa wonde, ƴoyre makko mawnde nde e peertugol makko to baŋnge politiki, so ɓeydaama e dañal makko to baŋngue paggundi, maa adanmo wallude jom galle makko haa yettina anniya mum kadi kaŋko ne o jogo nafoore e jogogal leydi ndi.


Wadde dewgal ngal koko miijta haa ɓenndi to baŋgeeji ɗiɗi fof.

Wadde dewgal ngal koko mi

*Debbo laamuyaŋke o e jiimgol e Ecopi[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Taytu Betul en 1896.

E nder saha ɓurɗo huccude e adunayaŋkagal, debbo laamuyaŋke keso o soobima haa tiiɗi e calagol njiimanteeri oropnaaɓe. . Ndeen maayirde teemodinol duuɓi XIXɓiiwol, ko jaaccingol keeri njiimanteeri e nder Afriki fof [7]. Feññini Taytu Betul ko saalaade mum feewde e Oropnaaɓe e kuule mbo o yamiri jom galle makko yo ƴettu feewde e jaɓɓugol ndimaagu maɓɓe mo ñaawooje koɗe ɗe pooɗontono. Debbo laamuyanŋke o ardii konu saliiɓe oropnaaɓe, salinooɓe feere jokkotiral mo laamuyanŋke Ménélik II fewjunoo hakkunde mum e oropnaaɓe[8]. Debbo laamuyaŋke o walliti gollal njogitaari feewde e Italinaaɓe, e kargugol Oropnaaɓe e leydi he. Kono noon, hay sinno o ɓuraa horsin Oropnaaɓe ɓe, haa adaniimo wiide o waawa muñde hendu maɓɓe, Taytu Betul ina hottanno Oropnaaɓe e kewuuji laamɓe ɗi, taw noon omo jeerto been ɗoon[9]. Nafoore wootere nde o yiyi e maɓɓe fawi ko e ngonka rewɓe to Orop.

La bataille d'Adoua en 1896.

Cirŋinagol debbo makko e golle bonɗe Italinaaɓe ɗe ngaddani Menelik saaktude e 1893 toŋgondiral mo Wuchale ngal o siifno duuɓi nay jawtuɗi, ŋakkungal fotde tolno hakkunde tuumnorgal amharik ngal e tuumnorgal italinaaɓe ngal, jaggirnoongal laamanteeri makko ndi deentorgal italinaaɓe. Ñande 1 mbooy 1896, konuuji makko pooli italinaaɓe toAdoua, e nder Tigray. Tuumnorɓe keewɗe tuumi Taytu Betul tawtoreede boowal wolde mo Adoua, kono ala heen ko laaɓi. Fof tan ko njoorto laamuyaŋkooɓe resondirɓe ɓe, fawnooɓe fof e nguuɗoon poolgu, ndañi wune: nde wolde Adoua nde ɓenni, ɓe ndañii fodde gooŋɗunde kadi Oropnaaɓe ɓe ndaardiɓe yiitere aardiiɓe neetaanteeɓe e dowlal mo Afriki kesal jaafaŋngal « fodde njiimanteeri »[10].

Coobagol makko e laamorgol Ménélik II[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

L'impératrice peinte en 1905 par Geórgios Prokopíou.

Taytu Betul soobiima no feewi e laamorgol mo Ménélik II. Waasdemo fiileede lefol régente waɗi debbo laamuyaŋke o ala hay jojannde wootere ko faati e laamorgol e haala[11]. Haɗaani noon wuurdiiɓe ɓe seettaade coobagol makko teeŋtungol, kadi ciforoomo saha no debbo ŋaɗɗo mo laamu jarani fof. Cafroowo mawɗo biyeteeɗo Paul Merab (en), ɓattiiɗo ɓeen laamuyaŋkooɓe resondirɓe, ko nii siforiimo[11] : « Debbo laamuyaŋke o ko peertuɗo tigi, pinɗo tigi e geɗe ko faati e Orop ¬(…), O mbo tawtoree haajuuji leydi ndi kala : Haajuuji adunayaŋkooji ɓuri wojdemo no feewi. O mbo jogi yiyannde laaɓtunde seniinde e geɗe gooɗɗe ɗe (…) Taitou ɓoyi rokkude jom galle mum waajuuji baɗɗi faayida. Ménélik ɓeeɗaa siifde tawo waynaakimo ». O ɓeydi heen e 1907 : « Gila duuɓi sappo e jeetati ko joƴinaa e jappeere he, o meeɗaa seerde e hollirde hoore makko e kala saha, ko debbo hooreejo, debbo gollotooɗo[12]. »

Nafoore Taytu Betul ina tawe kadi e cuɓogol e jaakorɗe laamu tiiɗɗe, to enɗam makko ittanaa geɗal sanne, jiŋngere jibinandemo ngañgu aristocrat yen iwɓe diiwanuuji goɗɗitiiɗimo, haa teeŋti e rimɓe mo choane[13]. Ko ɓeydi heen, debbo laamuyaŋke o dognata e boowal laamu he tan ko laamorgal ngenndiyaŋkeewal[14]. Ko teeŋtini ɗum, omo woƴanoo sanne nguurndam laamorgo ngo, Addis Abeba, sompaango ko mooyaani e dow peeje makko kam e jom galle makko[15]. Sabaabu nde makko, laamorgo ngo wonti nokku potal e bewre laamiiɓe. Debbo laamuyaŋke o suɓii kadi dingiral moo naŋngiri gooto e nokkuuji kaanduɗo e ñeemtinde laamuyankaagu ngam hollirde doole laamorɗe makko[16]. Taytu Betul walli kadi jom galle mum seertude e haɓaade peeje ɗe haɓdiiɓe makko pewjatno[17].

Ndeen noon, taadi tuumnorɗe ɓooyɗe e seedantaagu fotngu woodaani, andude nafoore debbo laamuyaŋke o haa laapta weeɓaani[17]. Fof tan ko wiide darnde makko won ɓe muusi, tuumaamuyaaji keewɗi kam haalaluuji peeñii, ummoraade e ñaawooje koɗe, kadi wonndude e heen baŋnge yimɓe leudi makko. Ɗiin haalaluuji pawaa ko e jikku debbo laamuyaŋke o, naŋngiraaɗo muusɗo e nayɗo [17]. No Ménélik II wayi yiɗeede ni, ko noon Taytu Betul wayi añeede. Taytu Betul feeññini ɗum ko jikku mum muusɗo, e ceeɓgol mum e laamorgol e jamaanu mo rewɓe ngalaano koŋngol e no laamirtee. O dañii heƴde e nokku mo worɓe tan keerorinoo.

Njanŋgu makko caggal maayde gorko laamuyaŋke o[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Taytu Betul et Menelik II.

Ɗiin haalaluuji e ndeen yiitere bonnde feewde e Taytu Betul ndartaaki : nde Ménélik II faawaa, ɗi ɓeydii tuumdemo ko maayde gorko laamuyaŋke o ñaagotoo. Merab windi : « Gila o faawa, ko kaŋko wonti e goonga gaardiiɗo leydi ndi baŋnge laamogol ko yaltata hono ko naatata13]. » Kono noon, ɗeen tuumaamuyaaji ngala to ɓaggi kadi woɗɓe njeddii ɗi18]. Teeŋtini ɗum ko Taytu Betul duñciraama e laamu he seeɗa seeɗa gila ni ko adii jom galle makko ina saŋko.

Caggal saŋkaare Menelik, o joñcoyii galle laamorɗo mo Entoto. Taaniiko Lidj Iyasou, gontuɗo laamuyaŋke e dow innitoraade Iyasou V, fiiltaa e siilto 1916 sabu rimɓe ɓe e egiliis o njaɓaani juulɗo ardo leydi ndi[19]. Lomtiimo ko Zewditou, ɓiɗɗo debbo mo Ménélik II jibidini e debbo goɗɗo. Nde o nani oon kabaaru, Taytu, njoncoynooɗo to galle laamorɗo moEntoto, ko hono nii fotata wiide « Jonni noon ko debbo ɓe piili kono wonaa miin. Kono wonaa miin ». Ɗuum ɗoon ne ɗefi teeŋtinde tuumamuyaaji biyatnooɗi wonde Taytu Betul yiɗnoo ko wonde « debbo laamiɗo worɓe »[20].

Le mausolée où reposent Menelik II, Taytu Betul et Zewditou.

Debbo laamuyaŋke keso o ina nanndi e neetaniiɗo Taytu kadi o ñaagiimo yoo tawmo Addis-Abeba, oon jaɓaani, kono no wayi fof Zewditou arii haa Entotto neetanaademo[20]. Caggal mum seeɗa, Taytu ñaagii yoo nawte Gondar jokkitoyde toon nguurndam mum, kono laamu ngu sali. Lebbi tati pawii heen o saŋkii, ñande 11 colte 1918[21]. Nde o maayi ñande 11 colte 1918, Zewditou fewji janayse balɗe tati kuljinɗe ngam mawninde golleTaytu Betul [21]. O wiraa ko sara jom galle makko Ménélik II e nder monastère mo Taeka Negest Ba'eta Le Mariam to Addis Abeba[22].

Golle e ndonu[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Ethiopia Awakening de Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller (en) (1910).

Waɗii sahaa, Taytu Betul naŋngiraa ko debbo laamuyaŋke toowɗo kufune kadi mbo yiɗaa arɓe haa teeŋti noon e laamuyaŋkooli oropnaaɓe, yiyannde nde Chris Prouty yaadaani. E yiyannde o debbo taarikiyaŋke Ameriknaajo , Taytu ko e gooŋnga mum woni e deentagol mum Oropnaaɓe wonnooɓe e halfude Afriki fof seeɗa seeɗa [22]. Heen baŋnge, ko ngool deentogol addani Ecopi, caggal poolgu to Adoua, heddaade leydi ngootiri e dowle Afriki, e hawde wolde njiimanteeri. Ndeen Ecopi naati e Société des Nations hakkunde golwole aduniyaŋkooje ɗiɗi ɗe, kono Itali mo Benito Mussolini njani e dow maɓɓe taw dental aduniyaŋkeewal ngal ɗippaani ni[23]. To Dowlaaji-dentuɗi, poolgu mo Ecopi e dow laamuuji njimanteeri ngu europnaaɓe, goomu mo Harlem Renaissance, mbeytoriima ɗum haa teeŋti e 1910 e sabaabu cehoowo biyereeɗo Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller (en) e Cehgal mum Ethiopia Awakening.

E ooɗo saha[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Oo sahaa mo ngonɗen, innde Taytu Betul ina laati anndeede e italinaaɓe, e nde tawee e koŋnguɗi baaɗi no « Oo holmo naŋngiri horemum ? Laamuyanke Taytu » (Ma chi si crede di essere quella là, la regina Taitù?) Walla kadi « Omo nanndi e dono laamu Taytu », ngol ɗoo koŋngol heewi wiyeede ɗum ko debbo keewɗo koongu e dow gorko mum[23], e ngol yiite hay e nder defte sukaaɓe [22]. Taytu Betul waɗi jaloore mawnde e yeeso Italinaaɓe ko e wolde Adoua, kadi nde piggal ngal yawti, haalaluuji puɗɗi yirlaade e Itali, e ɗi mbiya wonnde debbo laamuyaŋke o itti ngoraagu soldateeɓe italinaaɓe maaynooɓe walla gaañinooɓe e wolde he [24]. Ɗiin kaaɗi e Taytu waasataa ngoni sabaabu keddagol innde makko e mbaadi makko e kawtal miijooji italinaaɓe. Natoowo italinaajo Emilio Bergamin innirii ni Taitù e hitaande 1974 daawal kaake laatingal fewneede haa jooni e 2020 he[22].

Ngasnirten ko Taytu Betul haa hannde ina mawninee hono debbo laamuyaŋke mawɗo e hooreejo mawɗo, hay sinno ni e haala ko debbo hooreejo tigi-tigi o tan o wonno, woni Ménélik II gorko makko laamuyaŋke o. Omo horsinaa no feewi kadi leñol chretien yen mo Ecopi ina annditimo sabu balle keewɗe e nguurndam makko mo o waɗani Église orthodoxe mo ecopi faade e njoɓdi hajju to Jérusalem[25]. Galle mo o inniraa ina woodi ni haa jooni e wuro teddungo ngo. Duuɓi capanɗe joy caggal saŋkaare makko, omo mawninee to Ecopi rewneede ɗum e cente tembaruuji mawninirɗi rewɓe tedduɓe e daari haŋki ecopinaaɓe [22]. O waɗaa ko e sara Zewditou, lomtiinooɗomo o, laamuyaŋke Hélène, laamuyaŋke Mentewab (en) e na wondee reine de Saba[22].

Caate e tuumnorɗe[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Modèle:Références

Ɓeyditorɗe[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

Daarti nguurndam[taƴto | taƴto ɗaɗi wiki]

  • Elodie Descamps, « Taytul Betul, chef de guerre et "lumière" de l’Éthiopie », Jeune Afrique,‎ 2018 (lire en ligne).
  • (en) Raymond Jonas, The Battle of Adwa : African Victory in the Age of Empire, United States of America, Harvard University Press, 2011. .
  • (en) Thomas P. Ofcansky et David H. Shinn, Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia, Scarecrow Press, 2004. .
  • Alaba Onajin et Dhiara Fasya, « Taitu Betul : l'avénement d'une Etege », sur UNESCO, 2014.
  • Alexandra Pascal, Taytu et Zäwditu, impératrices d'Ethiopie (mémoire de maîtrise en histoire dirigé par Colette Dubois), Aix-en-Provence, Université d'Aix-Marseille I, 2000. .
  • (en) Chris Prouty, Empress Taytu and Menilek II : Ethiopia, 1883-1910, Trenton, Red Sea or Ravens Educational and Development Services, 1986. .